TRANSMISSION AND REFLECTION OF WAVES

 

Fixed-end reflection:
Fixed-end reflection occurs when the wave is reflected from a rigid obstacle.  In this case, the pulse inverted.  It means crest is reflected as though and a though is reflected as crest.  There will be no change in frequency, wavelength and speed of the wave.


Free-end reflection:
Free-end reflection occurs when the wave travels from slow to fast medium.  In this case, the new medium is free to move.   No inversion occurs.  There will be no change in frequency, wavelength and speed of the wave.

 

WAVES IN DIFFERENT MEDIUM:

When wave travel from fast to slow medium or from slow to fast medium, partial reflection occurs.  In partial reflection, some of the energy is transmitted into the new medium and some is reflected back into the original medium.

When wave travel from fast to slow medium:

Example:  Wave travels from light rope to heavy rope.  Or wave travels from deep water to shallow water.

In both cases partial reflection occurs.

Reflected wave is inverted, but transmitted wave is not inverted.  speed and wavelength in the fast medium are greater than that in the slow medium.  Frequency does not change.
 

When wave travel from slow to fast medium:

Example:  Wave travels from heavy rope to light rope.  Or wave travels from shallow water to deep water.

In both cases partial reflection occurs. 

Reflected wave and transmitted wave are not inverted.  Speed and wavelength in in the slow medium is less than that in the fast medium.  Frequency does not change.