RESONANCE IN AIR COLUMNS

 

           STANDING WAVES IN A STRETCHED STRING OF LENGTH OF L FIXED AT BOTH ENDS:

SCIENTIFIC NAME MUSICAL NAME    
First harmonic Fundamental L = λ/2
       
Second harmonic First overtone

 

L = λ

 

       
Third harmonic Second overtone L = 3λ/2
       
Fourth harmonic Third overtone L = 2λ

 

 

                           CLOSED END OF AIR COLUMN Acts as a fixed end

First resonant length

Fundamental mode

L = λ/4

f0

     
Second resonant length

First overtone

L = 3λ/4

3f0

     
Third resonant length

Second overtone

 

L = 5λ/4

5f0

 

 

                    OPEN END OF AIR COLUMN Acts as a free end

     
First resonant length

Fundamental mode

 

L = λ/2

f0

     
Second resonant length

First overtone

 

L = λ

2f0

     
Third resonant length

Second overtone

 

L = 3λ/2

3f0

     
Fourth resonant length

Third overtone

 

            4th Harmonic L = 2λ

4f0

1